Na 94 Our Rainforests Are In Peril. Here's What Needs To Be Done
By Anna Kučírková | Ultimas Noticias No. 94 June 2019

This guest article gives a very readable account of a lot of the issues about rainforests, and some ways of addressing them. 

I will make one addition here. Indigenous people are very often the best guardians of the rainforests that they live in and depend on. At this moment there is an important appeal to sign a petition on behalf of the Waorani of Ecuador. They have a real chance to protect a large chunk of the Ecuadorian Amazon from oil drilling. This includes some of the highest biodiversity on Earth. Please sign the petition/letter at https://waoresist.amazonfrontlines.org/action/

and pass it on.

 

Our Rainforests Are In Peril. Here's What Needs To Be Done

By Anna Kučírková

The world needs the rainforests in order to function properly. Our rainforests are in danger. Here’s what needs to be done.

 

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Most experts say that over 80,000 acres of rainforest are being destroyed every day, with an additional 80,000 being significantly damaged as a result of logging, agriculture, farming, mining, and dam building. Commercial deforestation occurs on a staggering scale globally, and scientists estimate that we lose 50,000 species of plants and animals annually to extinction due to deforestation.

 

A few specific industries are causing widespread upticks in deforestation rates, which the United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organization notes are 8.5 per cent higher this decade than they were in the 1990s. Further, researchers estimate that the loss of primary tropical rainforest, which is the wildest and most biologically diverse category, has increased by as much as 25 per cent since the 1990s.

 

As many developing nations grow at a rapid rate, their appetite for raw materials as well as land to farm and develop is threatening rainforests around the globe. However, there are still plenty of ways that we can save rainforests, which will save species from disappearing forever while also alleviating other devastating global issues including the water crisis.

 

The Rainforest Makes it Rain

 

One of the most interesting and potentially devastating effects of deforestation is the way deforestation creates a ‘negative feedback loop.’ The same trees that absorb carbon dioxide and regulate moisture levels in the air suddenly release CO2 when they are chopped down, and they are no longer there to constantly filter the air. The Amazon rainforest’s massive network of trees creates a natural cycle that causes rain clouds and moisture to accumulate nearby.

 

Without this cycle, the Amazon region could quickly trend towards arid, further disrupting global weather patterns which have already created a dangerous water shortage in many regions across the planet.

 

National Geographic Magazine has explained the interaction of the world’s rainforests as creating a “giant flowing river in the sky” as different regions’ rainy seasons push and pull moisture through the air. Rainforests have a profound effect on the weather, and until conservation efforts begin researching and prioritizing the devastating, drought-inducing effects of deforestation, the water crisis will only intensify.

 

This is particularly true of many developing nations which happen to be located in tropical regions which are currently home to large swaths of rainforest.  These are being cleared for export crops like palm oil, harvested for wood, and cleared for farming as these nations’ populations boom.

 

Food-Hungry Nations Drive Deforestation

 

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Oftentimes, deforestation is spurred on by a demand for food products that grow in tropical regions. In West Africa, the cocoa trade has spurred on massive deforestation in the Ivory Coast, where rainforest cover has been reduced by more than 80% in the last sixty years.

The global demand for cocoa has created a rampant black and grey market for cocoa beans that has caused enforcement agencies in countries like Ghana and the Ivory Coast to turn a blind eye to the illegal practices that account for up to 40% of the cacao in the global supply chain.

Because it is so difficult to discern the provenance of cocoa once it is gathered in bulk for processing, industry giants like Nestle and Hershey are fuelling the demand for the illegal cocoa, which is farmed primarily in freshly-deforested areas, where local farmers believe the “fresh” soil and ashes from burned down trees produce the highest crop yields.

[Editor’s note: it is undoubtedly true that freshly cleared rainforest land is more fertile than previously used land, and usually loses that fertility quickly. That is a problem that Inga alley cropping can solve. It maintains the fertility of the land long term. Whereas the main focus of Rainforest Saver is to enable the slash and burn farmers to grow their basic food sustainably, thus halting one important cause of rainforest destruction, the Inga is also used to increase and maintain the fertility of land for cocoa growing. Our colleague in Cameroon vouched for its effectiveness for that. It should therefore be possible to halt the need to clear more forest for cocoa by maintaining the fertility of existing plantations.]

However, deforested areas end up drought-stricken and infertile due to their inability to naturally self-regulate, which only fuels further demand for the illegally-procured deforested farming plots.

Similarly, palm oil farmed in deforested sections of Sumatra is causing major ecological crises and loss of already-threatened species like elephants, tigers, rhinos, and orang-utans. Much like the cocoa industry, palm oil is aggregated at processing plants which effectively obscure the oil’s origin, thus “absolving” buyers of direct responsibility for illegal deforestation.

However, the demand for these products is created by major international companies which are acutely aware of the practices required to create large amounts of palm oil and cacao, both of which incentivize farmers to operate illegally in order to boost production and have access to a profitable market.

Sumatra’s deforestation rate is among the world’s highest alongside the rest of Indonesia and Brazil, and the deforestation also contributes to drought and unusual wildfires which, in 2015 alone, created more CO2 emissions than the entire United Kingdom combined.

The fires, largely to clear land for palm oil, destroyed over 8,000 square miles of rainforest that year and contributed to over 100,000 premature deaths caused by exposure to smog or fire. Palm oil is a common vegetable oil that is used in foods, cosmetics, cleaning products, and fuels; it is a biological alternative to petroleum in many instances, but its harvesting is often similarly destructive to fossil fuel production.

Palm oil is the cheapest and most efficient vegetable oil to produce, which is why it’s in a staggering half of all consumer products on the market today. But just because it offers good economic incentives for major corporations, its environmental costs may make it among the most costly commonly-used ingredients today.

In addition to being obscured behind the generic name “vegetable oil,” palm oil is also frequently masked in consumer goods using names like “sodium lauryl sulphate, stearic acid, and palmitate,” all of which do little to betray their origins or allow consumers to make informed decisions.

In Indonesia, Malaysia, including Sumatra, the equivalent of 3oo football fields of rainforest are cleared per hour to make way for palm oil plantations. The impacts of deforestation are alarming and widespread, but many developing nations are slow to legislate or enforce environmental action as they prioritize economic growth, even when it comes at the expense of human rights or global ecological well-being. The island of Borneo has lost more than 16,000 square milesof ancient rainforest to palm oil plantations, which has threatened thousands of species of tropical flora and fauna.

To put this in the context of one species which is quite closely related to humans, almost 150,000 critically endangered Bornean orangutanswere killed between 1999 and 2015, all lost to deforestation, which occurs in large part due to demand for palm oil.

 

Local Solutions to Global Problems

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The unfortunate reality is that concerned environmentalists have little to no direct impact or power over the local governments which would theoretically protect rainforests. However, consumers, corporations, and environmental organizations can have a large impact through education initiatives and incentivizing viable alternatives to environmentally harmful products like palm oil and single-use paper goods,  paper production being another cause of deforestation.

Whether it’s public information campaigns that share the destructive backstory of palm oil with consumers in an effort to pressure major manufacturers or it’s small tech companies and non profits offering tools to help local enforcement agencies monitor and protect the forests under their jurisdiction, there are ways we can protect the fragile ecosystems of the world even if we do not have direct voting power in the nations in which they are located.

The Rainforest Connection (see link below) is using machine-learning and second-hand smartphones to create a network of “eyes and ears” in the Amazon rainforest to listen for noises associated with (illegal) logging activity as well as animal chatter that indicates the presence of certain critically-endangered and internationally-protected species.

This project solves a series of problems in protecting rainforests--when forests are still standing, they are extremely dense and difficult to navigate and monitor, which is both a challenge and an excuse for many local agencies. It also gives international watchdog groups credible evidence that CITES-listed endangered species are being directly threatened by logging activity in specific areas, which is a far more directly actionable data point than even the most thorough and credible research hypothesis.

 

Final Thoughts

Deforestation in global rainforests affects every one of us, no matter where we live. The good news is that every one of us can directly protect the rainforest by reducing the demand for products that contribute to deforestation, all while providing major corporations economic incentive to be transparent and support ecological initiatives instead of turning a blind eye to ecological and environmental catastrophes.

All opinions and information are those of the author’s and not necessarily of Rainforest Saver.

Article republished with the author’s permission. The original text available here[If it doesn’t open, copy this link into your browser https://businessconnectworld.com/2019/04/16/rainforests-are-in-peril-heres-what-needs-to-be-done/]

 

About the author

Anna Kucirkova has worked as a copywriter for over 4 years. She speaks 3 languages, loves traveling and has a passion for kids and writing. While she has been to many places in Europe and South East Asia, she still wants to explore the rest of the world. She originally wrote this article for Business Connect (see above link), who describe themselves as ‘Business Connect is a social enterprise (L3C) committed to providing citizens living in developing countries with affordable and easy access to essential resources, such as water and light.’